Video produced by Wayne State University Libraries.
Periodical is a term used to describe any publication that is published multiple times (periodically). Periodicals include materials such as popular magazines, scholarly journals, and newspapers.
It is important to understand the difference between a popular and a scholarly periodical. When you are doing research, most of your sources should be scholarly.
Often popular periodicals are called magazines and scholarly periodicals are called journals. Many times it will be acceptable to use some popular material, but research papers should not be based solely on popular literature.
|Criteria||Popular Magazine||Trade Journal||Scholarly Journal|
|Content||Secondary discussion of someone else's research; may include personal narrative or opinion; generalinformation, purpose is to entertain or inform.||Current news,trends and products in a specific industry; practical informationfor professionalsworking in the field or industry.||In-depth, primary account of original findings written by the researcher(s); veryspecific information, with the goal of scholarly communication.|
|Author||Author is frequently a journalist paid to write articles, may or may not have subject expertise.||Author is usually a professional in the field, sometimes a journalist with subject expertise.||Author's credentials are provided; usually a scholar or specialist with subject expertise.|
|Audience||General public; the interested non-specialist.||Professionals in the field; the interested non-specialist.||Scholars, researchers, and students.|
|Language||Vocabulary in general usage; easily understandable to most readers.||Specialized terminology or jargon of the field, but not as technical as a scholarly journal.||Specialized terminology or jargon of the field; requires expertise in subject area.|
|Graphics||Graphs, charts and tables; lots of glossy advertisements and photographs.||Photographs; some graphics and charts;advertisements targeted to professionals in the field.||Graphs, charts, and tables; very few advertisements and photographs.|
|Layout & Organization||Informal; may include non-standard formatting. May not present supporting evidence or a conclusion.||Informal; articles organized like a journal or a newsletter. Evidence drawn from personal experience or common knowledge.||Structured; includes the article abstract, goals and objectives, methodology, results (evidence), discussion, conclusion, and bibliography.|
|Accountability||Articles are evaluated by editorial staff, not experts in the field; edited for format and style.||Articles are evaluated by editorial staff who may be experts in the field, not peer-reviewed*; edited for format and style.||Articles are evaluated by peer-reviewers* or referees who are experts in the field; edited for content, format, and style.|
|References||Rare. Little, if any, information about source materials is given.||Occasional brief bibliographies, but not required.||Required. Quotes and facts are verifiable.|
|Paging||Each issue begins with page 1.||Each issue generally begins with page 1.||Page numbers are generally consecutive throughout the volume.|
Courtesy of Lili Kang at Gate Way Community College Library. Based on Scholarly vs. Popular Materials by Amy VanScoy, NCSU Library,
and Scholarly, Popular and Trade Journals by Jason Puckett & Lyn Thaxton at GSU.
Always think about different ways to say the same thing. Start with keywords to describe your topic; within results, look at the abstract and subject headings to identify additional keywords to use.
Connectors - or/and do not have to be capitalized.
Start with keywords (place phrases in quotes), use connectors (or / and) and look for the subject headings specific to each database.
Once you find a few relevant articles, look at the subject headings and revise the search if necessary by limiting to subjects and/or incorporating the subject words into the search.
|place phrases in quotes||use * for truncation|
|"political participation"||role* = role or roles|
|"mass media"||feminis* = feminism or feminist|
|"gender role"||female* = female or females|
|"gender identity"||sex* = sex or sexism or sexual or sexist|
|"feminist theory"||ethnic* = ethnic or ethnicity|
|"abortion rights"||right* = right or rights|
|ethnograph* = ethnography or ethnographic|
|use - or - to connect synonyms:||use - and - to connect concepts:|
|("gender role*" or "gender identity")||abortion and (law or legislation)|
|law or legislation||immigration and education and women|
|policies or policy||globalization and china and women|
|put it all together:|
|media and women and (muslim or islam*)|
|women and "social conditions" and "united states"
Flip your magazine or journal over. What kind of ad is on the back cover? If there is a vodka ad, car ad, or cigarette ad, this may not be considered a scholarly source. But let’s go on to more definitive measures…
Keep in mind these search tips when conducting your research:
In women-focused databases, there’s usually no need to put “women” into your search, except where “women” is already part of the term.
In other databases, search for women (OR girls, if relevant) as one concept adding AND to your specific concept, such as hip hop, distance runners, or sitcoms. [You don’t need to put in “women” if your concept already contains a “women word” (ex: chick flicks, mothers, lipstick lesbians), or a name (ex: Madonna, Mother Theresa, etc.)]
Search for synonyms or words that are close enough in meaning to be relevant to your search. Connect them with OR (ex: patriarchy or androcentrism or sexism; consumers or marketing or selling or product)
Search for word stems (truncate*) where any ending of the stem would be useful. Ex: consum* finds consume, consumer, consumption, etc.
Read critically, especially free web material. Consider 1) who wrote the item, 2) the purpose of the site – is it trying to sell you something, convince you, share a particular point of view, inform/explain, etc., and 3) the accuracy of the information.
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